Caldwell, New Jersey
Caldwell, New Jersey
|Borough of Caldwell|
Grover Cleveland Birthplace Historic Site
Census Bureau map of Caldwell, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||February 10, 1892|
|Named for||James Caldwell|
|• Body||Borough Council|
|• Mayor||John Kelley (D, term ends December 31, 2022)|
|• Administrator||Thomas Banker (Acting)|
|• Municipal clerk||Brittany Heun (Deputy)|
|• Total||1.167 sq mi (3.023 km2)|
|• Land||1.166 sq mi (3.019 km2)|
|• Water||0.001 sq mi (0.004 km2) 0.12%|
|Area rank||488th of 566 in state|
22nd of 22 in county
|Elevation||397 ft (121 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||294th of 566 in state|
17th of 22 in county
|• Density||6,710.3/sq mi (2,590.9/km2)|
|• Density rank||69th of 566 in state|
8th of 22 in county
|Time zone||UTC−05:00 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−04:00 (Eastern (EDT))|
|GNIS feature ID||2381010|
Caldwell is a borough located in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey, about 16 miles (26 km) outside of New York City and 6 miles west of Newark. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 7,822, reflecting an increase of 238 (+3.1%) from the 7,584 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 35 (+0.5%) from the 7,549 counted in the 1990 Census.
Caldwell was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 10, 1892, from portions of Caldwell Township (now Fairfield Township), based on the results of a referendum held on the previous day. In 1981, the borough's name was changed to the "Township of the Borough of Caldwell", as one of seven Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining four municipalities that had already made the change, of what would ultimately be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis. Effective January 26, 1995, it again became a borough.
Grover Cleveland, the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms, was born in Caldwell on March 18, 1837. His father, Rev. Richard Falley Cleveland, was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. The Grover Cleveland birthplace—the church's former rectory—is now a museum and is open to the public.
Though today the Caldwell area is considered to be a suburb of both Newark and New York City, the area originally developed as its own individual, self-contained community and economy rather than as urban sprawl from a larger city. When it was formed, miles of woods separated downtown Caldwell from Newark or any of its developing suburbs.
In 1702, settlers purchased the 14,000 acres (57 km2) Horseneck Tract from the Lenni Lenape Native Americans for goods equal to $325. This purchase encompassed much of western Essex County, from the First Mountain to the Passaic River. Caldwell is located in the center of the Horse Neck Tract. Settlement began about 1740 by Thomas Gould and Saunders Sanders.
The Horseneck Tract consisted of modern-day Caldwell, West Caldwell, North Caldwell, Fairfield, Verona, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Roseland, and portions of Livingston and West Orange. This land was part of the larger purchase and had been referred to as the Horse Neck Tract until February 17, 1787, when the town congregation voted to change the name to Caldwell, in honor of the Reverend James Caldwell who pushed for their organization's creation.
Caldwell Township contained what is today the towns of West Caldwell and Caldwell. Soon after, the area of Caldwell Township just to the east of Caldwell Borough between Caldwell Borough and Montclair (present-day Verona and Cedar Grove) decided to follow Caldwell's lead and incorporated itself as its own borough, Verona. Some of the already developed eastern neighborhoods of Caldwell Township chose to become part of Montclair, as it was a rapidly developing suburb of Newark and Paterson. At around the same time, the area north of Caldwell Borough became its own town, North Caldwell. The wooded area directly to the south of downtown Caldwell Borough became Essex Fells. Meanwhile, the farmland to the south of the western portion of Caldwell township attempted to become its own municipality known as South Caldwell. This failed, as much of developed sections of that area lied on its southernmost and easternmost borders, along the expanding Newark suburbs of Livingston and West Orange respectively. Those areas were engulfed by those two towns once they became incorporated municipalities of several small villages and developments.
This left only the most rural farmland south of Caldwell Borough and Essex Fells to become its own township, Roseland. At this point, all that remained of the original Caldwell Township was a large piece of undeveloped land in the northwestern-most part of Essex County. In 1963, Caldwell Township changed its name to Fairfield in order to avoid being confused with Caldwell Borough.
Immediately following the separation of the original Caldwell, the western part of Caldwell Borough generally remained less developed than downtown Caldwell Borough and contained several farms and a large area of undeveloped swampland known as Hatfield Swamp. However, two individual settlements, known as Franklin and Westville, soon formed in the western part of Caldwell Borough. As development increased and population grew in the western part of Caldwell, the town's more rural western population and more urban east often could not reconcile their differences. This led to the areas of Franklin and Westville consolidating into their own township known as West Caldwell in 1904, leaving only the one square mile of original downtown Horseneck development as the borough of Caldwell. Lewis G. Lockward was elected the first mayor of Caldwell. In 1929, an attempt to consolidate the three Caldwells into a single municipality was rejected by voters.
- George Washington and his staff made their way through the community during the Revolution. They stopped for lunch at the old stone house of Saunders Sanders (located near present-day Brookside Avenue), one of the two people to settle the original area.
- Marquis de Lafayette visited in 1824, featuring a celebration party at the Crane Tavern.
- About 1816, Elias B. Caldwell and family, Presbyterians, helped found Liberia, a nation for free blacks, and the town of Caldwell, Liberia.
- During the 1928 Presidential campaign, Herbert Hoover visited the Grover Cleveland Birthplace with his wife.
- Grover Cleveland lived the first four years of his life in Caldwell.
- In October 1897, a severe fire ripped through a large portion of Bloomfield Avenue, destroying buildings in its wake. These buildings were replaced, in part, by the Hasler Building, opposite the Presbyterian Church. This became Caldwell's first brick building.
- In 1914, during a Fourth of July fireworks celebration, a bomb fell, injuring 20 people. Local churches raised funds to defray the medical bills of the injured.
- In 1968, Caldwell's ornate historic bronze dolphin handle cannon was stolen off the town green. The cannon had been given to the borough by Marquis de Lafayette, who was a friend of Caldwell. A poorly cast rusting iron replica cannon was constructed and was placed at the site.
- On July 14, 1974, the landmark Park Theatre was destroyed by fire.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.167 square miles (3.023 km2), including 1.166 square miles (3.019 km2) of land and 0.001 square miles (0.004 km2) of water (0.12%).
Caldwell is part of "The Caldwells", the group of three Essex County municipalities which all have the word Caldwell in their name. Together with North Caldwell and West Caldwell, these communities are named after the Reverend James Caldwell, a Patriot who played an active role supporting the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, most notably his actions at the Battle of Springfield, where he gave the soldiers pages from hymn books to use as wadding for their rifle bullets. While each community has its own independent government, and the three municipalities have no shared governance (other than Essex County), the term is often used to refer to the area, including on highway exit signs. Signage for Exit 47B and 52 on Interstate 80 refer to "The Caldwells" as a destination. Fairfield Township was known as Caldwell Township until it abandoned its original name in 1963 in an effort to avoid confusion of mail distribution in the various Caldwells.
|Population sources: 1900–1920|
1930–1990 2000 2010
In a report performed by the United Way of Northern New Jersey based on 2012 data, around 34% of Caldwell households were classified as "Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed" households (below a threshold of $50,000 for households below 65, below $35,000 for those over 65), struggling with basic necessities, such as housing, childcare, food, health care, and transportation, compared to 38% statewide and 47% in Essex County.
The 2010 United States Census counted 7,822 people, 3,359 households, and 1,797.065 families in the borough. The population density was 6,710.3 per square mile (2,590.9/km2). There were 3,510 housing units at an average density of 3,011.1 per square mile (1,162.6/km2). The racial makeup was 86.78% (6,788) White, 3.32% (260) Black or African American, 0.10% (8) Native American, 4.72% (369) Asian, 0.04% (3) Pacific Islander, 3.14% (246) from other races, and 1.89% (148) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.05% (786) of the population.
Of the 3,359 households, 23.0% had children under the age of 18; 40.3% were married couples living together; 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present and 46.5% were non-families. Of all households, 39.7% were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 3.01.
18.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.4 years. For every 100 females, the population had 87.9 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 85.5 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $76,354 (with a margin of error of +/− $7,683) and the median family income was $99,898 (+/− $10,668). Males had a median income of $75,026 (+/− $12,328) versus $61,667 (+/− $20,342) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $45,693 (+/− $4,350). About 1.1% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 7,584 people, 3,311 households, and 1,814 families residing in the borough. The population density was 6,396.4 people per square mile (2,460.7/km2). There were 3,396 housing units at an average density of 2,864.2 per square mile (1,101.9/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 91.22% White, 2.27% African American, 0.11% Native American, 4.06% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, and 1.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.64% of the population.
There were 3,311 households, out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.2% were non-families. 38.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.93.
In the borough the population was spread out, with 18.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males.
The median income for a household in the borough was $61,250, and the median income for a family was $81,989. Males had a median income of $53,548 versus $40,543 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $34,630. About 2.5% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.
Caldwell is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government, which is used in 218 of 565 municipalities statewide, making it the most common form of government in New Jersey. The governing body is comprised of a Mayor and a Borough Council, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council is comprised of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Caldwell is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.
As of 2020[update], the Mayor of Caldwell is Democrat John Kelley, whose term of office ends December 31, 2022. Members of the Borough Council are Council President Christine V. Schmidt (D, 2021), Henderson Cole (D, 2020), Frances DePalma-Iozzi (D, 2022), Jeffrey Gates (D, 2022), John Lace (D, 2020) and Francis X. Rodgers III (D, 2021).
Caldwell and West Caldwell share services including the Recreation Department and the school system. The Board of Recreation Commissioners of the Boroughs of Caldwell and West Caldwell was established in 1947.
Federal, state and county representation
For the 116th United States Congress, New Jersey's Eleventh Congressional District is represented by Mikie Sherrill (D, Montclair). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Democrats Cory Booker (Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (Paramus, term ends 2025).
For the 2018–2019 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 27th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Richard Codey (D, Roseland) and in the General Assembly by Mila Jasey (D, South Orange) and John F. McKeon (D, West Orange).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2018[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo Jr. (D, Roseland). The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2018. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Brendan W. Gill (D, at-large; Montclair), Freeholder Vice President Wayne L. Richardson (D, District 2 – Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Newark), Janine G. Bauer (D, District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; South Orange, appointed to serve on an interim basis), Rufus I. Johnson (D, at large; Newark), Lebby C. Jones (D, at large; Irvington), Leonard M. Luciano (D, District 4 – Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), Robert Mercado (D, District 1 – Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), Carlos M. Pomares (D, District 5 – Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Bloomfield) and Patricia Sebold (D, at large; Livingston). Constitutional officers elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell; D, 2020), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (Fairfield; D, 2018) and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens II (D, 2021).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 5,035 registered voters in Caldwell, of which 1,585 (31.5%) were registered as Democrats, 1,118 (22.2%) were registered as Republicans and 2,331 (46.3%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There was one voter registered to another party.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 49.8% of the vote (1,814 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 49.4% (1,799 votes), and other candidates with 0.9% (31 votes), among the 3,672 ballots cast by the borough's 5,281 registered voters (28 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 69.5%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 48.4% of the vote (1,823 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 47.0% (1,770 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (41 votes), among the 3,769 ballots cast by the borough's 4,973 registered voters, for a turnout of 75.8%. In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 52.2% of the vote (1,981 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 46.6% (1,767 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (33 votes), among the 3,794 ballots cast by the borough's 4,852 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 78.2.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 62.7% of the vote (1,485 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 36.2% (857 votes), and other candidates with 1.1% (25 votes), among the 2,417 ballots cast by the borough's 5,263 registered voters (50 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 45.9%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 50.5% of the vote (1,353 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 37.7% (1,008 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 9.4% (251 votes) and other candidates with 0.9% (24 votes), among the 2,677 ballots cast by the borough's 4,974 registered voters, yielding a 53.8% turnout.
The Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools is a public school district that serves students from Caldwell and West Caldwell. The roots of the district date back to 1872, though formal consolidation of the districts was established in 1904. As of the 2017–18 school year, the district's six schools had an enrollment of 2,655 students and 218.8 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.1:1. Students are enrolled in an elementary school based on their home location, and students attend one middle school and one high school. Schools in the district (with 2017-18 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Harrison School (West Caldwell; 42 students; grades K-PreK), Jefferson Elementary School (West Caldwell; 274; K-5), Lincoln Elementary School (Caldwell; 247; K-5), Washington Elementary School (West Caldwell; 366; K-5), Wilson Elementary School (West Caldwell; 240; K-5), Grover Cleveland Middle School (Caldwell; 626; 6-8) and James Caldwell High School (West Caldwell; 812; 9-12).
Private schools in Caldwell include Trinity Academy for grades PreK-8 which was founded in 1991 and Mount Saint Dominic Academy for grades 9–12, which both operate under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. In 2015, Trinity Academy was one of 15 schools in New Jersey, and one of six private schools, recognized as a National Blue Ribbon School in the exemplary high performing category by the United States Department of Education.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the borough had a total of 18.41 miles (29.63 km) of roadways, of which 14.77 miles (23.77 km) were maintained by the municipality and 3.64 miles (5.86 km) by Essex County.
Commuter train service had been offered at Caldwell station on the Caldwell Branch, which ran from Great Notch to Essex Fells, with service offered starting in 1891. The borough of Caldwell bought the station in 1965 from the Erie Lackawanna Railway and demolished it later that year. Service at Caldwell station ended in October 1966, when Erie Lackawanna discontinued several commuter lines, in the face of unsuccessful legal action in the courts to keep the service operating. In 1979, the tracks on the Caldwell Branch were torn up.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Caldwell include:
- Madeline Cox Arleo (born 1963), United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey.
- Alfred M. Best (1876–1958), actuary who founded A. M. Best Company, Inc. in 1899.
- Whitey Campbell (1926-2015), head baseball coach at the University of Miami in 1958 and from 1960 to 1962.
- Grover Cleveland (1837–1908), 22nd and 24th President of the United States.
- Janine di Giovanni (born 1961), war correspondent.
- Herbert O. Fisher (1909–1990), test pilot for Curtiss-Wright, executive at Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
- Frank Handlen (born 1916), artist.
- Gerald Henderson Jr. (born 1987), NBA basketball player for the Charlotte Bobcats.
- Camryn Manheim (born 1961), actress.
- Kareem McKenzie (born 1979), offensive tackle for the NFL's New York Giants.
- George DeGraw Moore, (1822–1891), Wisconsin State Senator and New Jersey jurist, was born in Caldwell.
- Stuart Rabner (born 1960), Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court.
- Steve Schindler (born 1954), guard who played in the NFL for the Denver Broncos.
- Richard E. Stearns (born 1936), computer scientist.
- Peter Stewart, former mayor of Caldwell who served as an Essex County Freeholder and in the New Jersey General Assembly.
- Johnny Sylvester (1915–1990), childhood home of boy promised by Babe Ruth that he would hit a home run in the 1926 World Series.
- Calvin Thomas (1885–1964), actor.
- Claude Thornhill (1908–1965), pianist, arranger, composer and bandleader in the big band era.
- Gus Troxler (c. 1871-1945), strong man, boxer, actor, sports promoter and physical-training expert.
- Andy White (1930–2015), British session drummer who made three records with The Beatles, including Love Me Do.
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Mayor John Kelley, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- 2020 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed February 1, 2020.
- Borough Administrator, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- Deputy Clerk, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Caldwell, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 4, 2013.
- DP-1 – Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Caldwell borough, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- Municipalities Sorted by 2011-2020 Legislative District, New Jersey Department of State. Accessed February 1, 2020.
- Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Caldwell borough Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- 2010 Census: Essex County, Asbury Park Press. Accessed June 30, 2011.
- QuickFacts for Caldwell borough, New Jersey; Essex County, New Jersey; New Jersey from Population estimates, July 1, 2019, (V2019), United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2020.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey , United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 4, 2012.
- Look Up a ZIP Code for Caldwell, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed August 30, 2011.
- Area Code Lookup – NPA NXX for Caldwell, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 7, 2014.
- U.S. Census website , United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Geographic Codes Lookup for New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed September 1, 2019.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606–1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 75. Accessed July 6, 2012.
- "Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification", p. 73. New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, 1992. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- "Removing Tiering From The Revenue Sharing Formula Would Eliminate Payment Inequities To Local Governments", Government Accountability Office, April 15, 1982. Accessed September 24, 2015. "In 1978, South Orange Village was the first municipality to change its name to the 'township' of South Orange Village effective beginning in entitlement period 10 (October 1978 to September 1979). The Borough of Fairfield in 1978 changed its designation by a majority vote of the electorate and became the 'Township of Fairfield' effective beginning entitlement period 11 (October 1979 to September 1980). … However, the Revenue Sharing Act was not changed and the actions taken by South Orange and Fairfield prompted the Town of Montclair and West Orange to change their designation by referendum in the November 4, 1980, election. The municipalities of Belleville, Verona, Bloomfield, Nutley, Essex Fells, Caldwell, and West Caldwell have since changed their classification from municipality to a township."
- Narvaez, Alfonso A. "New Jersey Journal", The New York Times, December 27, 1981. Accessed September 24, 2015. "Under the Federal system, New Jersey's portion of the revenue sharing funds is disbursed among the 21 counties to create three 'money pools.' One is for county governments, one for 'places' and a third for townships. By making the change, a community can use the 'township advantage' to get away from the category containing areas with low per capita incomes."
- Karcher, Alan J. New Jersey's Multiple Municipal Madness, pp. 119–120. Rutgers University Press, 1998. ISBN 978-0-8135-2566-2. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- 1990s boundary changes: New Jersey Archived 2011-06-28 at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 30, 2011.
- Grover Cleveland Birthplace, New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Accessed July 2, 2011. "Grover Cleveland's birthplace was built in 1832 as the Manse, or Pastor's residence, for the first Presbyterian Church at Caldwell."
- "Best Places To Live – The Complete Top Towns List 1-100", New Jersey Monthly, February 11, 2010. Accessed February 24, 2010.
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed August 28, 2015.
- Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 63. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. Accessed August 28, 2015.
- Wright, George Cable. "Jersey Aroused by Referendums; Some Ballots on Tuesday to List Nine Questions", The New York Times, November 3, 1963. Accessed July 5, 2012. "The voters of Caldwell Township wilt be asked to substitute the name of Fairfield, which the township bore 100 years ago when it stretched east to Newark. The name change was recommended because of confusion of mail distribution in Caldwell, West Caldwell and North Caldwell. There is presently a Fairfield Township in Cumberland County."
- "Old Caldwell Branch at End of the Line", The New York Times, June 10, 1979. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Council Business Meeting April 15, 2014, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed November 3, 2019. "Whereas, General George Washington and his staff stopped for lunch at Saunders Sanders stone tavern during the Revolution, and the militia met and drilled at the Green to set off from the green for the battles of Connecticut Farms, Springfield, and Monmouth under the leadership of Captain William Gould, and... Whereas, the Marquis de Lafayette visited Caldwell on a triumphal tour, celebrated at the Crane Tavern, and Caldwell was given the brass cannon on the green by Colonel Peter Decatur during that visit in 1824, and"
- https://www.google.com/books/edition/_/x6s9AAAAYAAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1 (page 5)
- Staff. "Hoover In Appeal To Labor Warns Against Tariff Cut; Acclaimed In Jersey Tour; 10,000 In Newark Hear Him Tells Workers They Owe Welfare to Policies of the Republicans. Stresses Immigration Bar Products and Wages Protected by Curb on Influx of Low-Paid Labor, Says Nominee. Hailed In Tour Of Towns Edisons Greet Candidate and His Wife in Essex County Ride --75,000 Cheer Them.", The New York Times, September 18, 1928. Accessed July 31, 2013. "Another bright spot in the motor trip was a visit paid by Mr. and Mrs. Hoover to the birthplace of Grover Cleveland at Caldwell."
- Collins, John J. Remembering the Caldwells, p. 120. Arcadia Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0-7385-4543-0. Accessed July 31, 2013. "The cannon on the green is a replica of the original cannon presented to Caldwell by Gen. Marquis de Lafayette. The original mounted cannon was stolen in 1968."
- The Park Theater Fire, The Caldwell Green — an online exhibit of items from the Gene Collerd Local History Collection at the Caldwell Public Library, December 23, 2013. Accessed August 20, 2014.
- NJ Community Prepares to Honor Fighting Spirit of Reverend James Caldwell Archived 2006-05-06 at the Wayback Machine, accessed August 6, 2006.
- Wright, George Cable. "Jersey Aroused By Referendums; Some Ballots on Tuesday to List Nine Questions Junior College Vote Name Change in Brick", The New York Times, November 3, 1963. Accessed October 2, 2011. "The voters of Caldwell Township will be asked to substitute the name of Fairfield, which the township bore 100 years ago when it stretched east to Newark. The name change was recommended because of confusion of mail distribution in Caldwell, West Caldwell and North Caldwell."
- Areas touching Caldwell, MapIt. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- Municipalities, Essex County, New Jersey Register of Deeds and Mortgages. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- New Jersey Municipal Boundaries, New Jersey Department of Transportation. Accessed November 15, 2019.
- Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Minor Civil Divisions in New Jersey: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2020.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2019, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2020.
- Compendium of censuses 1726–1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed July 31, 2013.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 – Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed July 5, 2012. As of the 1930 Census, the data for the 1920 enumeration was adjusted to reflect the transfer of 217 residents imprisoned at the Essex County Penitentiary from Caldwell to North Caldwell.
- New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930–1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Caldwell borough, New Jersey Archived 2014-06-30 at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 – Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Caldwell borough, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 5, 2012.
- "ALICE Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed: Study of Financial Hardship", United Way of Northern New Jersey, September 2014. Accessed September 18, 2014. "In total, 1.2 million households in New Jersey – fully 38 percent – struggled to support themselves in 2012."
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Caldwell borough, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 21, 2012.
- Inventory of Municipal Forms of Government in New Jersey, Rutgers University Center for Government Studies, July 1, 2011. Accessed November 18, 2019.
- Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government: Everything You've Always Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask" Archived 2014-09-24 at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed November 30, 2014.
- "Forms of Municipal Government in New Jersey", p. 6. Rutgers University Center for Government Studies. Accessed June 3, 2015.
- Meet Our Mayor and Council, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- 2019 Municipal Data Sheet, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed September 12, 2019.
- County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed March 22, 2020.
- November 5, 2019, General Election Unofficial Results, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated November 14, 2019. Accessed January 1, 2020.
- November 6, 2018, General Election Unofficial Results, Essex County, New Jersey, updated November 22, 2018. Accessed January 1, 2019.
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- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed February 1, 2020.
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- Districts by Number for 2011–2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
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- About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
- Senators of the 116th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed April 17, 2019. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
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- General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018. "The County Executive, elected from the County at-large, for a four-year term, is the chief political and administrative officer of the County.... The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
- Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Brendan W. Gill, Freeholder President / At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Wayne L. Richardson, Freeholder Vice President, District 2, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Janine G. Bauer, Freeholder District 3, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Rufus I. Johnson, Freeholder At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Lebby C. Jones, Freeholder At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Leonard M. Luciano, Freeholder District 4, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Robert Mercado, Freeholder District 1, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Carlos M. Pomares, Freeholder District 5, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Patricia Sebold, Freeholder At-Large, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Members of the Board, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Breakdown of Freeholder Districts, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- About The Clerk, Essex County Clerk. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Members List: Clerks, Constitutional Officers Association of New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Armando B. Fontura, Essex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Members List: Sheriffs, Constitutional Officers Association of New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Meet Surrogate Stephens, Essex County Surrogate. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Members List: Surrogates, Constitutional Officers Association of New Jersey. Accessed June 10, 2018.
- Voter Registration Summary – Essex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- "Presidential General Election Results – November 6, 2012 – Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast – November 6, 2012 – General Election Results – Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. March 15, 2013. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- "Governor – Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- "Number of Registered Voters and Ballots Cast – November 5, 2013 – General Election Results – Essex County" (PDF). New Jersey Department of Elections. January 29, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- 2009 Governor: Essex County Archived 2015-02-02 at the Wayback Machine, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- Caldwell-West Caldwell Board of Education District Policy 0110 - Identification, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed February 10, 2020. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-Kindergarten through twelve in the Caldwell-West Caldwell School District. Composition: The Caldwell-West Caldwell School District is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of Caldwell-West Caldwell."
- A Brief History, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 6, 2012. "The Borough of Caldwell and the Township of West Caldwell have played a prominent role in the development of the Caldwell-West Caldwell school system and the quality of education it provides. Cooperation of the two communities began in 1872 when state laws governing school districts permitted the villages of Caldwell, Franklin and Westville to consolidate into a 'School Borough.' … West Caldwell became a borough February 24, 1904. On March 30, 1904, a special school meeting was held to vote on the consolidation of Caldwell and West Caldwell into one school district. The vote was in favor of consolidation."
- District information for Caldwell-West Caldwell School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 1, 2019.
- School Data for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed November 13, 2019.
- Harrison School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Jefferson Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Lincoln Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Washington Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Wilson Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Grover Cleveland Middle School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- James Caldwell High School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- New Jersey School Directory for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed December 29, 2016.
- Admissions, Essex County Schools of Technology. Accessed September 12, 2019. "Any eighth, ninth, tenth or eleventh grade student who is a resident of Essex County, who expects to be promoted by their local district to the grade they seek to enter, is eligible to apply for fall admission or admission during the school year subject to the availability of openings."
- Our History, Trinity Academy. Accessed November 14, 2016. "Instituted in September 1991, Trinity Academy is a Catholic elementary school, grades pre-kindergarten through eight, which was created and supported by the parishes of St. Aloysius in Caldwell, Notre Dame in North Caldwell, and Our Lady of the Blessed Sacrament in Roseland."
- Essex County Catholic Elementary Schools, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. Accessed November 14, 2016.
- History Archived February 16, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Mount Saint Dominic Academy. Accessed November 14, 2016.
- Essex County Catholic High Schools, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. Accessed July 20, 2016.
- 2015 National Blue Ribbon Schools All Public and Private, National Blue Ribbon Schools Program. Accessed November 14, 2016.
- Mueller, Mark. "Which N.J. schools were named National Blue Ribbon schools?", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, September 29, 2015. Accessed November 14, 2016. "Fifteen New Jersey schools have been recognized by the federal government as National Blue Ribbon Schools, a designation that celebrates excellence in academics or progress in closing the achievement gap among groups of students.... Each of the 15 New Jersey schools was chosen for the 'exemplary high performing' category, which weighs state or national tests, high school graduation rates and the performance of subgroups of students, such as those who are economically disadvantaged."
- About Caldwell, Caldwell University. Accessed September 12, 2019. "Located in the picturesque town of Caldwell, New Jersey. Recently, Caldwell was voted the third best place to live in all of New Jersey by New Jersey Monthly Magazine.... Caldwell University enrolls approximately 2,200 full-time, part-time, and graduate students."
- Essex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
- County Route 506 Straight Line Diagram, New Jersey Department of Transportation, updated June 2012. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Essex County bus / train connections, NJ Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed June 30, 2011.
- Essex County System Map, NJ Transit. Accessed November 2, 2019.
- Schweiterman, Joseph P. When the Railroad Leaves Town: American Communities in the Age of Rail Line Abandonment, Volume 1, p. 185. Truman State University Press, 2001. ISBN 9780943549989. Accessed November 3, 2019. "During the summer of 1965 demolition crews razed the community's passenger depot. In the autumn of 1966 commuter trains operated by Erie Lackawanna made their last runs, ending passenger service."
- "Commuters Lose Bid to Keep Erie Trains", The New York Times, October 3, 1966. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Gaudiano, Nicole. "N.J. judge testifies at confirmation hearing", Asbury Park Press, July 30, 2014. Accessed November 12, 2016. "'(Those), to me, are the most important qualities of a judge,' Arleo, of Caldwell, told members of the Senate Judiciary Committee."
- About the Founder of A.M. Best, A.M. Best. Accessed October 16, 2007. "Alfred M. Best was born in Caldwell, NJ, in 1876."
- Degnan, Susan Miller. "UM all-around great athlete, coach Whitey Campbell dies at 89", Miami Herald, November 5, 2015. Accessed November 4, 2018. "Campbell was born in New York City and grew up in Caldwell, New Jersey."
- "Historical Sites in New Jersey", The New York Times, September 30, 2007. Accessed October 16, 2007. "Grover Cleveland Birthplace Caldwell. Grover Cleveland was born in this house in 1837 while his father, the Rev. Richard Falley Cleveland, was the minister to the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell."
- Kachka, Boris. "War Born: Growing up in New Jersey, Janine di Giovanni had to get out. So she went to Chechnya and the Balkans.", New York (magazine), December 8, 2003. Accessed October 2, 2011. "But the Times of London correspondent plans to continue her travels—baby in tow—giving her child an upbringing worlds away from her own in Caldwell, New Jersey."
- Staff. "Herbert O. Fisher, 81, Test Pilot and Official." The New York Times, August 3, 1990. Accessed June 14, 2013. "Mr. Fisher was also a councilman and police commissioner in Caldwell, N.J., and was on the New Jersey Civil Air Defense Advisory Council."
- Biography for Frank Handlen, AskART. Accessed October 24, 2007. "Born September 27, 1916 in Caldwell, New Jersey, he lived and painted in Biddeford Pool, Maine from 1940–1970."
- Shaughnessy, Dan. "Son is in forecast: Duke's Henderson has bright future", The Boston Globe, March 26, 2009. Accessed July 2, 2011. "Young Gerald was born in December 1987 in Caldwell, N.J., while his dad was playing for the 76ers."
- Thomas, Bob via Associated Press. "Camryn Mannheim plays 'fairest one of all'", Ocala Star-Banner, February 27, 2000. Accessed July 2, 2011. "Born in Caldwell, N.J., Manheim spent her early years in New Jersey, Illinois and Michigan as her math-professor father changed universities."
- Kareem McKenzie player profile, National Football League Players Association. Accessed July 23, 2007. "Despite playing only 2 years of football at Willingboro High School in New Jersey, he earned USA Today and Schutt All-America honors... Was rated the nation's best offensive lineman by SuperPrep... Resides in Caldwell, N.J"
- George DeGraw Moore, Marathon County, Wisconsin Historical Society. Accessed November 3, 2019.
- Corzine Nominates Stuart Rabner to Serve as Attorney General, Governor of New Jersey press release dated August 24, 2006, backed up the Internet Archive as of December 14, 2006. Accessed July 1, 2011. "The Passaic County native graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University and cum laude from Harvard Law School. He currently lives in Caldwell with his wife and three children."
- Steve Schindler, Pro-Football-Reference.com. Accessed November 12, 2016.
- Richard ("Dick") Edwin Stearns, Association for Computing Machinery. Accessed November 12, 2016. "Birth: July 5, 1936 in Caldwell, New Jersey"
- Mueller, Karin Price. "Bamboozled: Gym member has a workout trying to get refund for unauthorized charges", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, January 25, 2016. Accessed November 12, 2016. "Peter Stewart has been a member of New York Sports Club (NYSC) in West Caldwell for several years. The former Caldwell mayor and retired attorney said he was always happy with his membership."
- Staff. "Babe Ruth documentary wins award ", The Progress, April 19, 2013. Accessed July 31, 2013. "Sylvester was Lilley's great-uncle. He was born in 1915 in Caldwell where he lived before moving with his family to a large house in Essex Fells in 1921."
- Poekel, Charlie. Babe and the Kid: The Legendary Story of Babe Ruth and Johnny Sylvester, p. 34. The History Press, 2011. ISBN 978-1-61423-096-0. Accessed July 31, 2013. "Home of Horace C. Sylvester Jr. and his family located between Roseland Avenue and Wootton Road in Essex Fells, New Jersey. The Sylvester family had moved to this home in 1921 from Caldwell, New Jersey, and on October 11, 1926, Babe Ruth came to the house to pay a visit to the recovering eleven-year-old Johnny Sylvester."
- Staff. "Calvin L. Thomas, Actor, Dies at 79", The New York Times, September 27, 1964. Accessed November 3, 2019. "Caldwell, N J., Sept. 26—Calvin L. Thomas, a character actor in nearly a hundred Broadway productions during the last 50 years, died today in Essex General Hospital. He was 79 years old and lived at Linwood Terrace."
- Staff. "Claude Thornhill Is Dead at 56; Pianist Led Band in 'Swing Era; Arranger for Judy Garland Films Set Up Group. in '39 -- Won 2 Billboard Polls", The New York Times, July 2, 1965. Accessed July 3, 2011. "Caldwell, N. J., July 1 – Claude Thornhill, whose big band was one of the most popular in the swing era, died today at his home here after having suffered two heart attacks. He was 56 years old."
- Staff. "Gus Troxler: Boxing Promoter, Actor, Strong Man, Dies in Newark at 74", The New York Times, February 16, 1945. Accessed November 12, 2016.
- Racioppi, Joseph. "Caldwell resident has big Beatles connection", The Progress, September 17, 2009. Accessed January 31, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caldwell, New Jersey.|
- Borough of Caldwell
- Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools
- Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- School Data for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics
- Caldwell Community Center
- Caldwell College