Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA
|Artist's concept of the X-44 in flight|
|Role||Experimental tailless aircraft|
|National origin||United States|
|Status||Proposed design, canceled|
|Developed from||Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor|
The Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA (Multi-Axis No-Tail Aircraft) was an American conceptual aircraft design by Lockheed Martin that has been studied by NASA and the U.S. Air Force. It was intended to test the feasibility of full yaw, pitch and roll authority without tailplanes (horizontal or vertical). Attitude control relies purely on 3D thrust vectoring. The aircraft design was derived from the F-22 Raptor and featured a stretched delta wing without tail surfaces.
Design and development
The X-44 was designed by Lockheed Martin to demonstrate the feasibility of an aircraft controlled by vectored thrust alone. The X-44 design had a reduced radar signature (due to lack of tail and vertical stabilizers) and was made more efficient by eliminating the tail and rudder surfaces, and instead using thrust vectors to provide yaw, pitch and roll control.
The X-44 MANTA design was based on the F-22, except without a tail and incorporating a full delta wing. The basic X-44 MANTA would entail a larger weapons payload and a greater fuel capacity than the F-22, due to its larger delta wing design. The MANTA was designed to have reduced mechanical complexity, increased fuel efficiency and greater agility. The X-44 MANTA combined the control and propulsion systems, using thrust vectoring. Funding for the X-44 program ended in 2000.
- Lockheed YF-22 – Prototype fighter aircraft for the US Air Force Advanced Tactical Fighter program
- Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor – American fifth-generation air superiority fighter
- Lockheed Martin FB-22 – Proposed bomber aircraft for the US Air Force derived from the F-22 Raptor
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- Pike, John. "X-44 MANTA." GlobalSecurity.org, 27 April 2005.
- "X-Planes Explained". NASAExplores.com, 9 October 2003.
- Miller, Jay (2001) [First published 1988]. The X-Planes: X-1 to X-45 (3rd ed.). Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing. ISBN 9781857801095. OCLC 47726721.
- Day, Dwayne A. "Delta Wings". centennialofflight.net